Cauliflower has tended to decline as a major vegetable crop, with a total production value of $49.8 million in 2009. Annual production is now estimated at 75kt/year. It is a cool season crop grown mainly in Victoria and Queensland, with smaller amounts grown in other states.
The optimal range for cauliflower growth is 15-18C, under which conditions yields may be 23-30 t/ha. Although cold temperatures, even down to zero, can reduce yield by around 15%, many cauliflowers have excellent cold tolerance, allowing them to be grown over winter for spring harvest. High temperatures are more of a problem, as 32C and above can cause bolting, yellowing of the curd and uneven floret development.
Tropical and sub-tropical genetics is available from india for early-maturing cauliflowers which can produce heads in 56-63 days. These varieties are already used by commercial seed companies in Asia, such as EastWest seeds.
Long-day overwintering types have been developed for Northern Europe and could be grown in some areas.